A timeline for the War of Northern Aggression and it's impact in Missouri.
November 6, 1860
Missouri had 9 electorial votes in the 1860 election. Lincoln was 4th in votes in Missouri; Douglas received 58,801, Bell received 58,372 votes, Breckenridge received 31,362 votes and Lincoln received 17,028 votes. Lincoln was elected the sixteenth President with 180 electorial votes and 1,865,593 popular votes.
December 20, 1860
South Carolina meeting in Charleston on December 20, the convention passed unanimously the first ordinance of secession, which stated, "We, the people of the State of South Carolina in convention assembled, do declare and ordain... that the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of 'the United States of America,' is hereby dissolved," making South Carolina a free and independent country.
January 9, 1861
January 10, 1861
January 11, 1861
January 29, 1861
Kansas admitted to the Union.
February 1, 1861
Missouri held a secession convention in February at Jefferson City, but did not vote for secession. Most of Missouri held "conditional Unionist" beliefs at this point, meaning they did not favor secession but did not support the North imposing war on or coercing the Southern states either.
March 4th, 1861
Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as President of the United States.
April 12th, 1861
At about 4:30 AM, South Carolina militia forces in Charleston opened fire on Fort Sumter. Thirty-four hours later, the Union surrendered the command.Two days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln declared a state of insurrection and called for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebellion.
April 17, 1861
May 6, 1861
May 10, 1861
Camp Jackson Affair
May 14, 1861
The Missouri State Legislature passed the "Military Bill" on May 11, 1861, in direct response to the Camp Jackson Affair in St. Louis the previous day. The final version of the act approved on May 14 authorized the Governor of Missouri, Claiborne Fox Jackson, to disband the old Missouri Volunteer Militia and reform it as the Missouri State Guard to resist "invasion" by the Union Army and "rebellion" (by Missourians who had enlisted in the Federal forces). It also outlawed or prohibited other militia organizations except those authorized by the Guard's district commanders.
HEAD QUARTERS, M.S.G.,
Is authorized to administer the following oath to recruits wishing to enter Confederate service. By Order of Major General Sterling Price.
The recruit will take off his hat and hold up his right hand, when the person administering the oath will say:
You, , do solemnly swear, that you will bear true allegiance to the State of Missouri and the Confederate States of America, and that you will serve them honestly and Faithfully against all their enemies or opposers whatsoever, and observe and obey the orders of the Governor of Missouri and the President of the Confederate States of America, and the orders of the Officers appointed over you, according to the rules and articles of the government of the armies of the State of Missouri and the Confederate States, for . So help you God.
May 20, 1861
North Carolina succeeds.
June 17, 1861
First Battle of Boonville
June 19, 1861
Battle of Cole Camp
June 5, 1861
Battle of Carthage
August 2, 1861
Battle of Dug Springs
August 5, 1861
Battle of Athens
August 10, 1861
Battle of Wilson's Creek/Oak Hills
August 30, 1861
John C. Fremont declares martial law in Missouri and frees slaves of Missouri Confederates.
September 2, 1861
Battle of Dry Wood Creek
September 11, 1861
President Lincoln orders John C. Fremont to rescind his order freeing some slaves in Missouri and issue a new order conforming to the Confiscation Act passed by Congress.
September 17, 1861
Battle of Liberty/Blue Mills Landing
September 18, to September 20, 1861
Battle of Lexington (Battle of the Hemp Bales)
September 22, 1861
October 21, 1861
Battle of Fredericktown
October 25, 1861
First Battle of Springfield (Zagonyi's Charge)
October 31, 1861
Session of exiled elements of the Missouri legislature convened in the southwest Missouri town of Neosho and claimed to have passed an Ordinance of Secession on October 30, with the Governor-in-Exile Jackson signing on October 31, 1861.
November 28, 1861
The Confederate Congress officially admitted Missouri as the 12th Confederate State on November 28, 1861.
March 13, 1862
General Order Number 2M
St. Louis, Mo., March 13, 1862
1. Martial law has never been legally declared in Missouri except in the city of St. Louis, and on and in the immediate vicinity of the railroads and telegraph lines and even in these localities military officers are specially directed not to interfere with lawful process of any loyal civil court. It is believed that the time will soon come when the rebellion in Missouri may be considered as terminated, and when even the partial and temporary military restraint which has been exercised in particular places, may be entirely withdrawn. By none is this more desired than by the General commanding.
2. It must, however, be borne in mind that in all places subject to the incursions of the enemy, or to the depredations of insurgents and guerrilla bands, the military are authorized, without any formal declaration of martial law, to adopt such measures as may be necessary to restore the authority of the Government, and punish all violations of the laws of war. This power will be exercised only where the peace of the country and the success of the Union cause absolutely require it.
3. Evidence has been received at these Headquarters that Major General Sterling Price has issued commissions or licenses to certain bandits in this State authorizing them to raise "Guerrilla forces," for the purpose of plunder and marauding. Gen. Price ought to know that such a course is contrary to the rules of civilized warfare, and that every man that enlists in such an organization forfeits his life, and becomes an outlaw. All persons are hereby warned that, if they join any guerrilla band, they will not, if captured, be treated as ordinary prisoners of war, but will be hung as robbers and murderers. Their lives shall atone for the barbarity of their General.
By Command of Major General Halleck
N. H. McLean, Assistant Adjutant General
April 14, 1862
Battle of Montevallo
April 21, 1862
Partisan Ranger Act, Confederate States Congress, April 21, 1862
Section 1. The congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the president be, and he is hereby authorized to commission such officers as he may deem proper with authority to form bands of partisan rangers, in companies, battalions, or regiments, to be composed of such members as the President may approve.
Section 2. Be it further enacted, that such partisan rangers, after being regularly received in the service, shall be entitled to the same pay, rations, and quarters during the term of service, and be subject to the same regulations as other soldiers.
Section 3. Be its further enacted, That for any arms and munitions of war captured from the enemy by any body of partisan rangers and delivered to any quartermaster at such place or places may be designated by a commanding general, the rangers shall be paid their full value in such manner as the Secretary of War may prescribe.
July 17, 1862
Congress passes the Second Confiscation Act, or The Confiscation Act of 1862. This allows for confiscation of property from people who participate in the war.
Confederate Partisan Act in Missouri
I. For the more effectual annoyance of the enemy upon our rivers and in our mountains and woods all citizens of this district who are not conscripted are called upon to organize themselves into independent companies of mounted men or infantry, as they prefer, arming themselves and to serve in that part of the district to which they belong.
II. When as many as 10 men come together for this purpose they may organize by electing a captain, 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, and will at once commence operations against the enemy without waiting for special instructions. Their duty will be to cut off Federal pickets, scouts, foraging parties and trains and to kill pilots and others on gunboats and transports, attacking them day and night and using the greatest vigor in their movements. As soon as the company attains the strength required by law it will proceed to elect the other officers to which it is entitled. All such organizations will be reported to their headquarters as sonn as practicable. they will receive pay and allowances for subsistance and forage for the time actually in the field, as established by the affidavits of their captains.
III. These companies will be governed in all respects by the same regulations as other troops. Captains will be held responsible for the good conduct and efficiency of their men and will report to these headquarters from time to time.
General Thomas C. Hindman
August 11, 1862
Battle of Independence
August 15, to August 16, 1862
Battle of Lone Jack
September 22, 1862
Following the preemptive strike at Antietam President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in states or portions of states still in rebellion on January 1, 1863.
September 30, 1862
First Battle of Newtonia
October 18, 1862
January 8, 1863
Second Battle of Springfield
January 9, to January 11, 1863
Battle of Hartville
May 23, 1863
Burning of Nevada & Ambush at Gabbert Farm
August 1, 1863
Union Jail Collapse at No. 13 on Grand in Kansas City - The victims were Southern women, kin to notorious bushwhackers. Josephine, 15, little sister to William Anderson - a man whom it was unwise to anger - perished in the Aug. 13, 1863, collapse. Another victim was Charity McCorkle Kerr, whose brother, John McCorkle. Armenia Crawford Selvey and Susan Crawford Whitsett Vandever were sisters of Riley Crawford, one of the youngest members of Quantrill's band in 1863. Cole Younger was a cousin. The bodies of the Crawford women and McCorkle's sister were taken to the small Davis-Smith Cemetery beyond the village of Raytown. Their resting place, now on private property between the lanes of Missouri 350 east of Westridge Road. Josephine Anderson is buried in Union Cemetery.
August 25, 1863
General Order # 11.
Headquarters District of the Border,
Kansas City, August 25, 1863.
1. All persons living in Jackson, Cass, and Bates counties, Missouri, and in that part of Vernon included in this district, except those living within one mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill, and Harrisonville, and except those in that part of Kaw Township, Jackson County, north of Brush Creek and west of Big Blue, are hereby ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen days from the date hereof.
Those who within that time establish their loyalty to the satisfaction of the commanding officer of the military station near their present place of residence will receive from him a certificate stating the fact of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificates will be permitted to remove to any military station in this district, or to any part of the State of Kansas, except the counties of the eastern border of the State. All others shall remove out of the district. Officers commanding companies and detachments serving in the counties named will see that this paragraph is promptly obeyed.
2. All grain and hay in the field or under shelter, in the district from which inhabitants are required to remove, within reach of military stations after the 9th day of September next, will be taken to such stations and turned over to the proper officers there and report of the amount so turned over made to district headquarters, specifying the names of all loyal owners and amount of such product taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district after the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, will be destroyed.
3. The provisions of General Order No. 10 from these headquarters will be at once vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the district and at the station not subject to the operations of paragraph 1 of this order, and especially the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City.
4. Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10 is revoked as to all who have borne arms against the Government in the district since the 20th day of August, 1863.
By order of Brigadier General Ewing.
H. Hannahs, Adjt.-Gen'l.
September 26, to September 27, 1864
Battle of Pilot Knob
September 27, 1864
October 21, 1864
Little Blue River/Westport
October 21, 1864
October 22, to October 23, 1864
Byram's Ford/Big Blue River
October 23, 1864
Battle of Westport
October 28, 1864
Second Battle of Newtonia